The relationship between population mobility, migration and HIV is one that is both complex and contested. This has particular relevance for the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region, a setting associated with a generalised HIV epidemic and a high prevalence of diverse population movements. In 2015, the SSA region remains home to the largest number of people living with HIV and – while some successes have been reported, such as increased numbers of people on treatment, fewer deaths, and a reduction in new cases of HIV per year – challenges remain to the development and implementation of effective combination prevention interventions. In this chapter, the role of contemporary population mobility in mediating the HIV epidemic in SSA is explored and recommendations for action to assist in strengthening responses to HIV – including the call for migration-aware programming – in the region are presented. In line with renewed calls for a focus on the structural drivers of HIV, this is a critical time – a strategic opportunity – for (re)focusing on structural drivers of HIV; population mobility is one such prevalent structural reality associated with the SSA region that affects HIV policy and programming in multiple ways.
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