Chapter 18: Antecedents, consequences, and the mediating role of innovation: empirical generalizations
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This chapter synthesizes empirical studies and extends the understanding of relationships among the correlates (antecedents and/or outcomes) of innovation in organizations. The study draws upon a meta-analytic database of 416 independent samples and examines 27 determinants and three outcomes of innovation. The meta-analysis finds that innovation is positively related to efficiency and subjective performance. Past innovation and organizational factors, namely, communication and interfunctional coordination, have the largest effect size as antecedents of innovation. Other antecedents with moderate level effect sizes include resources, urbanization, customer orientation, openness to change, networks, and specialization. Moreover, the presence of an innovation champion and professionalization are important antecedents. A multivariate-based generalized least squares (GLS) moderator analysis indicates that measurement factors and research design considerations significantly bias observed effect sizes. Post hoc analyses highlight the differences among innovation relationships across different types of innovations (i.e., product versus process; radical versus incremental). For example, for studies that focus only on product innovation, the relationship between innovation and performance is positive and significantly different from zero.

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