This chapter attempts to provide a regional overview of transnational criminality in Asia, a continent marked by great diversity. It makes use of selected examples of illegal flows of goods and services, such as the trafficking of drugs, weapons, people, and cultural and natural resources, to explain the causes, consequences and challenges associated with transnational criminality in Asia. Recent large-scale trade liberalisation and infrastructure projects, such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative, promote connectivity and mobility across the region and even globally. However, such initiatives also risk facilitating transnational criminality, particularly when combined with the widespread economic underdevelopment, conflict and corruption that still trouble parts of Asia. Additionally, countering the many forms of transnational crime is made more difficult by differences in legislation and law enforcement capacity between countries. Combined, these factors have meant that transnational criminality is now firmly entrenched in every country in Asia.
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