This chapter argues that the complex production–migration structure in which nation-States are immersed should be examined to develop alternative conceptions of regulation vis-à-vis labour recruitment. It analyses the links between labour recruitment and forced labour in a context in which global production is being driven by global supply chains that are geographically dispersed and fragmented, by incorporating recruiters’ and workers’ agency. One of the key factors that lead to forced labour situations lies in variegated recruitment pathways which incorporate workers into global production. By addressing how different forms of labour recruitment lead to forced labour and related phenomena, the chapter shows how formal and informal migration regimes constrain migrants’ agency in different ways. Building on examples from field research on farm labour contractors in California and recruitment agencies in Malaysia and Qatar, the chapter unpacks the nuanced forms in which labour recruitment is still a key challenge for the globalisation of migration.
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