Research Handbook on International Water Law
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Research Handbook on International Water Law

Edited by Stephen C. McCaffrey, Christina Leb and Riley T. Denoon

The Research Handbook on International Water Law surveys the field of the law of shared freshwater resources. In some thirty chapters, it covers subjects ranging from the general principles operative in the field and international groundwater law to the human right to water and whether international water law is prepared to cope with climate disruption. The authors are internationally recognized experts in the field, most with years of experience. The Research Handbook is edited by three scholars and practitioners whose publications and work deal with the law of international watercourses.
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Chapter 22: The Nile River Basin and its changing legal contours

Salman M.A. Salman


This chapter traces the various agreements on the Nile concluded during the colonial and post-colonial eras. It analyses the 1902 and 1929 agreements that Egypt and Sudan claim grant them veto power over projects on the Nile in upstream countries, and which these countries have disavowed. It also discusses the 1959 Nile Agreement under which Egypt and Sudan divided the entire Nile flow between themselves. However, recent agreements concluded by Ethiopia with Sudan in 1991, and with Egypt in 1993, the Nile Basin Initiative, and the Cooperative Framework Agreement 2009, started recognizing other riparians’ rights on the Nile. The chapter argues that these agreements, and the Declaration of Principles concluded by Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam in 2015 have resulted in the gradual levelling the Nile Basin playing field, and are changing the entire Nile legal contours.

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