This chapter presents an overview of health and health care systems in low and middle income countries (LMICs), their structures, key debates and issues, as well as ongoing efforts to universalize health coverage. It provides a contextual description of the disease and human development profiles of LMICs, and traces the history and evolution of their health care systems. The chapter also reflects on the correlations between health and development, highlighting their reciprocal relationship. Amid current efforts to universalize health coverage in LMICs, the chapter delineates current challenges and future pathways for sustaining health care reforms.
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