This chapter assesses the lessons and learning emerging from environmental policy integration, climate policy integration, sustainability and adaptation mainstreaming literature regarding the possibilities for integrating adaptation into existing policy frameworks and institutions. Those lessons generally indicate that successful integration requires several preconditions and supporting factors. As indicated through multiple national case studies from around the world, those preconditions are not always satisfied. This can result in failure to integrate adaptation, which leaves it marginalized; or in incomplete integration that reduces adaptation efficiency with potential externalities for other policy objectives. This chapter thus illustrates that integration cannot be assumed, but must be reviewed for its potential in any given case.
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