The implications of climate change for water resources in various forms _that is, flood risk, drought, and other areas _ has been a major focus of adaptation assessment and policy to date. This chapter examines adaptive water governance, looking at key challenges, followed by a brief characterization of the main actors involved in adaptive water governance. The chapter concludes with three case studies exemplifying current and future water challenges under climate change. The chapter argues that adaptive water governance, defined as coordination, steering and managing of water across multiple levels against the background of climatic changes, must take into account the multi-faceted nature of water governance: that is, crossing policy sectors, the various uses of water, the different interests in water, and the interconnectedness to other major challenges such as food and energy. Solutions must, therefore, be local or regional and tailor-made to local or regional economic, ecological and social characteristics
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