As a conclusion, this chapter synthesizes common findings regarding what enables or constrains adaptation, including issues associated with specificsectors or geographies, scale, and extent of adaptation policy implementation (what has enabledadaptation to progress beyond policy formulation to implementation). The chapter also considers the challenges arising from continued use of a linear model for decision-making that focuses on addressing perceived knowledge deficits associated with climate change, but neglects other barriers arising from social, cultural, institutional and political system factors. Furthermore, the chapter argues for the need for broader integration of various perspectives from social and, in particular, policy studies to comprehend adaptation (and mitigation) policy challenges.
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