Chapter 9: Green theory and the G20
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This chapter assesses the G20 from the perspective of three distinct ‘green’ theoretical approaches: green market liberalism; green institutionalism; and critical green theory. A focus is given to three areas of the G20’s work: green stimulus/green growth; fossil fuel subsidy reform; and climate change risk in the financial sector. Additionally, two pivotal G20 summits (Brisbane 2014 and Hamburg 2017) are described to demonstrate how state and non-state actors utilize G20 processes to shape international climate negotiations. The chapter concludes that the G20’s performance on environmental issues has thus far been slow and inconsistent; however, there is some reason to remain optimistic that it might improve. Some reflections on institutional reforms that could enhance the prospects for G20 leadership in global environmental governance are provided.

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