Higher education systems have expanded and become increasingly differentiated in recent decades. Their effects upon their host societies have been both transformative and reproductive. Differentiation of higher education can take different forms, both vertical and horizontal. These affect admissions, experiences and outcomes from studying in higher education. Lives are changed, but in different ways for different students. There are also broader effects on society as a whole, partly generated through the effects on students but also reflecting a range of social, cultural, political and economic dimensions which can impact on all members of society.
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