Chapter 13: Higher education funding in the context of competing demands for government expenditure
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The last decades have seen rising enrolment numbers in higher education across all countries and continents. System dynamics have changed, and there have been challenges with public funding, growth in private providers, and implementation of tuition fees. This leads to questions of whether public funding can cope, and alternatives that can ensure sustainable higher education. This chapter reviews past and recent developments concerning higher education, suggests that public funding is likely not to meet the needs, and provides new ideas on how to meet future funding requirements.

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