It is widely accepted at present that graduates should not only be knowledgeable but also skilled; that is, to apply the learning they have gained in practice. To define what should be learned, governments all over the world have initiated the development of (inter)national qualifications frameworks. These benchmarks have also been developed at subject area level, resulting from transnational initiatives of higher education (HE) institutions and their academics. Although these instruments offer us clear indicators of what should be learned, they do not tell us how this learning should take place and whether the intended outcomes are achieved. This requires additional political action and the development of further policies in two directions: better infrastructures at HE institutions for staff training, and measurement tools that offer reliable evidence regarding the outcomes of a learning process in a comparative perspective. This chapter outlines what has already been done in the past, and what still has to be done in the future to guarantee that HE contributes to the building of prosperous and sustainable societies.
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