Handbook of Inclusive Innovation
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Handbook of Inclusive Innovation

The Role of Organizations, Markets and Communities in Social Innovation

Edited by Gerard George, Ted Baker, Paul Tracey and Havovi Joshi

The Handbook of Inclusive and Social Innovation: The Role of Organizations, Markets and Communities offers a comprehensive review of research on inclusive innovation to address systemic and structural issues – the “Grand Challenges” of our time. With 27 contributions from 57 scholars, the Handbook provides frameworks and insights by summarising current research, and highlights emerging practices and scalable solutions. The contributions highlight a call to action and place social impact at the heart of theory and practice. It will be an invaluable resource for academics, practitioners, and policymakers who champion social inclusion and emphasize innovative approaches to addressing sustainable development goals.
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Chapter 8: Urban innovation: at the nexus of urban policy and entrepreneurship

Jeffrey A. Robinson, Amol M. Joshi, Lutisha Vickerie-Dearman and Todd Inouye


In this chapter the authors define urban innovation as the development of long-lasting transformations in urban communities, neighborhoods, and cities. In their proposed framework, urban innovation is driven by two overarching principles: social inclusion and transformation. Inclusion allows for interaction across social groups and benefits society by reducing socio-economic separation through fostering stronger, and even new, relationships in the community. Transformation means deep-seated change that remodels the mindset and creates new change agents. These principles enable them to isolate innovative activities that are small and incremental from urban innovations that have the potential to impact the economy and society in major ways. The authors identify three distinct types of transformative and inclusive policy innovations used in the urban innovation context: market creating, market integration, and market incentivizing. They present three types of business model innovations that work within these innovations: social entrepreneurship, technology and innovation parks, and venture accelerators. They further categorize the social entrepreneurship business model into sustainable or triple bottom line businesses, social enterprises, micro-finance organizations and benefits corporations/B-Corps. Specific examples of these policy and business model innovations from around the world are highlighted to illustrate how and why urban innovations are essential for economic growth and social development in rapidly urbanizing cities. Finally, the authors present several promising avenues for new research on urban innovation to guide scholars, practitioners, and policymakers in more systematically studying the phenomenon and in making strategic decisions about critical issues related to the future of the world’s cities.

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