Handbook of Inclusive Innovation
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Handbook of Inclusive Innovation

The Role of Organizations, Markets and Communities in Social Innovation

Edited by Gerard George, Ted Baker, Paul Tracey and Havovi Joshi

The Handbook of Inclusive and Social Innovation: The Role of Organizations, Markets and Communities offers a comprehensive review of research on inclusive innovation to address systemic and structural issues – the “Grand Challenges” of our time. With 27 contributions from 57 scholars, the Handbook provides frameworks and insights by summarising current research, and highlights emerging practices and scalable solutions. The contributions highlight a call to action and place social impact at the heart of theory and practice. It will be an invaluable resource for academics, practitioners, and policymakers who champion social inclusion and emphasize innovative approaches to addressing sustainable development goals.
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Chapter 22: A framework for sustaining hybridity in social enterprises: combining differentiating and integrating

Marya Besharov, Wendy Smith and Tiffany Darabi


Social enterprises – hybrid organizations that combine seemingly incompatible social mission and commercial logics – can generate novel solutions to pressing social problems. Yet sustaining these dual logics in one organization over time remains challenging. Drawing on paradox research, the authors argue that organizations can effectively do so by combining features that both differentiate and integrate logics. Differentiating involves organizational features that encourage distinctions and separations across logics, while integrating involves features that encourage synergies. The authors show how dual logics can be differentiated and integrated at the individual, group, and organizational levels. Using examples from recent social enterprise research, they build a framework for sustaining hybridity in social enterprises that illustrates the value of adopting features that both differentiate logics and integrate logics, and highlights varied configurations for doing so. Based on this analysis, they propose a research agenda for exploring in greater depth how differentiating and integrating can sustain social enterprises and support social innovation and hybridity more broadly.

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