Handbook of Cultural Security
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Handbook of Cultural Security

Edited by Yasushi Watanabe

This Handbook aims to heighten our awareness of the unique and delicate interplay between ‘Culture’ and ‘Society’ in the age of globalization. With particular emphasis on the role of culture in the field of “non-traditional” security, and seeking to define what ‘being secure’ means in different contexts, this Handbook explores the emerging concept of cultural security, providing a platform for future debates in both academic and policy fields.
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Chapter 23: Pluralism and freedom of the media: a European perspective

Elda Brogi and Pier Luigi Parcu


Media pluralism and media freedom are topics that are at the centre stage of the European Union (EU) agenda. The chapter presents the results of the 2016 implementation of the Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM), a holistic tool that was designed to assess the risks for media pluralism, in the 28 EU member states and in two candidate countries, namely Turkey and Montenegro. It also gives an overview of the main challenges in regulating the news on the Internet and in particular of the EU debate on countering so-called ‘fake news’.

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