Chapter 3: Urban Black Protestants and the predicament of emancipation
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Chapter 3 examines African American religious leadership during the Reconstruction period. Charles F. Irons discusses the differences in church leadership and autonomy between urban and rural southern areas as contrasting emancipation experiences. Irons argues that the development of independent African American churches, especially in urban areas, was a way of breaking from white paternalism, and further discusses the correlation between religious power and political power.

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