Gender and Generational Division in EU Citizenship
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Gender and Generational Division in EU Citizenship

Edited by Trudie Knijn and Manuela Naldini

Family law, gender equality, care arrangements and the consequences of demographic change have long been on the agenda of the European Union. However, these are coloured by national and cultural factors more than any other disputes, and form a barrier to the equalising of status for European citizens. Using an interdisciplinary approach, and bringing together law scholars, political scientists and sociologists, this book looks at the implications of the categorisation of identity in the European Union, and what they mean for the realisation of citizens’ rights throughout the EU.
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Chapter 6: Differently unequal: On migrants’ stratified access to family reunification and family entitlements in the Netherlands, Israel and Italy

Dana Halevy, Dorota Lepianka and Arianna Santero


This chapter explores effects of national contexts (Israeli, Italian and Dutch) on the stratification processes of foreign nationals (migrants) in family reunification and family support policies. The importance of stratification differs by country and policy area. While provenance determines migrants’ access to state territory in Israel, residential status and economic utility are more significant in conditioning migrants’ social rights in the Netherlands and in Italy. Also, the desirability of migrants per country is important. In Israel, provenance is understood as common descent; in Italy and in the Netherlands, the provenance of the migrant is evaluated in the light of their political, economic or cultural proximity. Despite the EU embeddedness of Italy and the Netherlands and the integrative EU policies, differences exist between the two countries driven by their migration, employment and welfare regimes. Future research should address the disadvantaged position of immigrant women for their unequal access to family reunion and family entitlements, the gendered division of care responsibilities within the household and the vulnerability risks for immigrant children.

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