Chapter 4: Self-employment, pensions and the risk of poverty in old age
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The risk of poverty in old age entails the problems of financing and receiving an adequate pension. Some of the risks are determined by factors which may be influenced by individuals, and which have to be seen in the context of ability and willingness to save part of their earnings of self-employed people. The other group of factors, which determine the risk of old age poverty, cannot be influenced by individual action or behaviour. These factors include the institutional and legal framework and developments in capital markets. Here the stability and security of the entitlements, the replacement rate, and the adjustment of pensions during retirement to maintain once living standard pose special problems to avoid poverty in old age.

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