Handbook of Urban Segregation
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Handbook of Urban Segregation

Edited by Sako Musterd

The Handbook of Urban Segregation scrutinises key debates on spatial inequality in cities across the globe. It engages with multiple domains, including residential places, public spaces and the field of education. In addition it tackles crucial group-dimensions across race, class and culture as well as age groups, the urban rich, middle class, and gentrified households. This timely Handbook provides a key contribution to understanding what urban segregation is about, why it has developed, what its consequences are and how it is measured, conceptualised and framed.
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Chapter 3: Segregation by class and race in São Paulo

Eduardo Marques and Danilo França


This chapter describes the characteristics of residential segregation by race and social class in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, starting from data from the Brazilian census of 2010. After presenting the social structure of the metropolis, the work investigates segregation by social class and race, using dissimilarity indices and measures of spatial autocorrelation of EGP occupational categories. Next, the chapter constructs typologies of spaces according to social class, created from factorial and cluster analysis, showing a spatial structure characterized by the concentration of elites in more central spaces, while at the same time a growing social heterogeneity in peripheral and intermediate spaces. Many authors demeaned the importance of racial segregation in Brazil by making a comparison with cities in the United States, sustaining that there would be only residential segregation by class in Brazilian cities. However, the existing information challenges this interpretation, showing mild levels of residential segregation between blacks and whites in the lower classes that become increasingly sharp in middle and higher classes. Middle- and upper-class whites inhabit the most privileged areas of the metropolis, being very isolated and distant from all other groups, including middle- and upper-class blacks. Therefore, the São Paulo urban structure shows superposed and combined segregation patterns by race and class, resulting in cumulative urban inequalities.

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