The lands of indigenous peoples contain some of the world's largest remaining reserves of natural resources. While this holds promise for economic development, efforts to extract or transport natural resources can have serious adverse effects on indigenous stakeholders. This chapter explores a variety of international instruments adopted to date that are intended to protect the interests of indigenous communities affected by resource development, by calling for comprehensive impact assessment, community participation in decision-making, and benefit sharing. Yet the chapter also identifies a number of gaps and limitations in these international instruments, and demonstrates that these gaps and limitations are only partially filled by other sources, including domestic law, private agreements and standards, and human rights court jurisprudence. Finally, this contribution considers how existing protections for indigenous communities affected by resource development might be strengthened at the international level in the future.
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