Chapter 14: Indigenous rights and trade: the USMCA and contemporary issues
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While economic growth and Indigenous rights are often treated as mutually exclusive concepts, developments in international trade and investment agreements evince a shift toward their more harmonious co-existence. This chapter discusses the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement, and argues that, despite the omission of a novel and independent chapter pertaining to Indigenous rights, the newly enacted United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement reflects an ardent commitment to Indigenous rights by way of its general exception clause and other key provisions in addition to the conduct of the member-states during negotiations. It also highlights Canada's extensive consultation of Indigenous stakeholders and subsequent recommendations to the USMCA negotiations as direct evidence of the good-will generated through the participation of all relevant parties, as well as the compatibility of Indigenous rights and economic growth. This chapter concludes by looking forward to two areas unaddressed by the USMCA, namely: UNDRIP and Indigenous mobility rights.

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Edited by Dwight Newman