The 21st century by key sharply divergent Indigenous realities: enduring poverty and marginalization and a resurgence in Indigenous entrepreneurship and business. The poverty reflects the multigenerational impacts of colonial, paternalism and the occupation of Indigenous traditional territories. While many governments tried to offset chronic unemployment and low incomes with transfer payments, the welfare state ushered in welfare dependency that carries its own set of social pathologies. Capitalizing on national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, communities asserted their opportunity to develop new businesses, secure well-paid jobs and secure additional revenues for Indigenous governments. Many Indigenous communities remain largely locked out of the mainstream economy and almost all seek to maintain traditional and culturally important harvesting activities. Collectively, Indigenous entrepreneurs and businesses are working locally, nationally and internationally to provide a great measure of well-being and economic security for communities that have long been left outside the general prosperity of the nation.
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