Articles 12 and 25 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) articulate new collective and holistic approaches to religious rights. Previous iterations of religious freedom in international human rights instruments have tended to focus on the individual right to belief and the corresponding right to manifest that individual belief, either alone or in community. UNDRIP's explicitly anti-colonial aims led to the inclusion of distinctive religious rights in recognition of the fact that existing human rights instruments were ill-suited to the context of Indigenous religious and spiritual worldviews, beliefs and practices. Articles 12 and 25, while in a non-binding document, are a rich resource for domestic law to expand existing conceptions of freedom of religion to better address, protect, and advance the religious and spiritual rights of Indigenous peoples.
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