Chapter 4: Development against migration: investments, partnerships and counter-tactics in the West African–European migration industry
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Joris Schapendonk shows, by zooming into migration between Sub-Saharan Africa to the fact that migration is increasingly blocked and that it is increasingly difficult to speak about ‘migration flows’. This chapter starts from the endeavours of the European Union and its individual member states to stem unwanted migration from West Africa. It shows how migration management relies on formal and informal agreements between states in the North and the South and it articulates that this policy field create new capital flows that fuel an industry with a wide range of non-state institutions. As a consequence of large scale investments in border surveillance and anti-migration policies, people are increasingly hindered in their migration trajectories, while migration industries are playing active roles in helping people to take hurdles. This often goes hand in hand with exploitation and new vulnerabilities. Many migrants are stuck and or have to deal danger and risks. Migration is increasingly ‘bumpy’ as is being illustrated by experiences from the Gambia. The bordering and security actors involved attempt to oppose mobility through surveillance, data sharing and control. Current policies articulate the growing gap between the lives of well-todo mobile global citizens and less-fortunate groups who are increasingly contained and immobilized.

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