Chapter 11: The mining sector in sub-Saharan Africa: flows of capital and people in large-scale mining and artisanal and small-scale mining
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Chris Huggins underlines the importance of flows of capital and people in the global mining sector for countries like Tanzania, making the distinction between Large Scale Mining (LSM) by transnational corporations (capital intensive with small ‘expatriate’ workforce) and Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) with, conversely, a large number of workers, who often migrate within state borders towards new mining opportunities. Over the last decade, several African states have attempted to regulate LSM capital flows to maximise government revenues, and adopted local content policies to benefit local businesses. Simultaneously, states are trying to ‘formalize’ ASM production and commodity chains (commodities originating from ASM are usually informally traded, resulting in ‘illicit’ and ‘invisible’ material and financial flows and development chains). The chapter shows that from a local development perspective, the impacts of ASM interventions will depend on how revenues are re-invested by the government in infrastructure and public services. Future improvement heavily depend on central governments: State investment, e.g. in transport infrastructure, healthcare, security, and other public goods; and finding ways to facilitate transitions from small-scale to medium-scale mining operations, without preventing ASM actors from working.

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