The threat typology model (TTM) argues that identity threats (that is, information or situations with negative implications for either the personal or the social self) are best understood in terms of the specific associations they target. A threat can target the association between the self and a category label (for example, group or attribute), the association of a category with valence, or the association of the self with valence (that is, self-esteem). This chapter reviews identity threat research and explores how the findings compare or contrast with the TTM. We find that recently published studies support the TTM; however, there exist incongruities that provide promising areas for future identity threat research. Specifically, future research should consider situations in which results often deviate from the TTM, such as situations in which multiple identities operate in concert and situations involving public versus private dynamics.
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