A Companion to Transport, Space and Equity
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A Companion to Transport, Space and Equity

Edited by Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs

With social inequity in urban spaces becoming an increasing concern in our modern world, The Elgar Companion to Transport, Space and Equity explores the relationships between transport and social equity. Transport systems and infrastructure investment can lead to inequitable travel behaviours, with certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.
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Chapter 2: Understanding the relationship between changes in accessibility to jobs, income and unemployment in Toronto

Robbin Deboosere, Geneviève Boisjoly and Ahmed El-Geneidy


Robbin Deboosere, Geneviève Boisjoly and Ahmed El-Geneidy consider the impacts of improved accessibility to employment opportunities in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton region, using the concept of competitive job accessibility, defined as the number of accessible jobs by number of workers who can access them. Increases in transit accessibility for low and medium income neighbourhoods are associated with higher increases in income, yet lower increases in income for the higher income areas. This is perhaps explained by the migration of higher income groups out to the car-dependent suburbs, and reflective of the continuing flight to the suburbs in this context.

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