Manufacturing industry is a major consumer of the energy and material resources generating significant amount of waste. Circular manufacturing systems (CMS) that are designed intentionally for closing the loop of products for reuse, maintaining their original performance at the least, through multiple lifecycles are indispensable for sustainable development. For successful implementation of CMS, a systemic approach for integration of business model, product design and supply chains exploiting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) a vital enabler is essential. In CMS, the business model is a primary driver dictating the design of both products and supply chains. While these three functions influence each other in diverse ways, they also define needs and requirements for ICT infrastructure for handling the complexity of information management throughout the value chain. Several leading industrial practices across the manufacturing landscape are representative examples of CMS, where the systemic approach of integrating business model, product design, supply chain and ICT is taken into consideration. Prominent examples of such approach include companies like Xerox, Ricoh, Caterpillar, HP, Renault and Michelin. This chapter explores the concept of CMS, their characteristics and need in the context of circular economy. It also analyses leading examples of CMS implementation in the current linear economy paradigm and challenges in scaling up to realise their full business and sustainability potential.
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