Chapter 7: Assessing the figures of sex work throughout non-transition and transition European countries: magnitude, premium on earnings and informal employment
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The chapter addresses the magnitude of prostitution throughout 39 countries, namely the EU-28 plus Norway and 10 non-EU transition countries, as of the year 2010. According to the authors’ literature review concerning both non-coerced and coerced prostitution, empirical studies prove very scarce. Scant data from representative household surveys on male sexual behaviour document the demand side. Data sources are collected on the supply side in order to design three series of estimates using the following measurements: two from HIV prevalence among female sex workers, two from international NGOs and two from victims of sexual exploitation trafficking. Estimates are tested with an OLS model, an ordered probit and country ranking with respect to GDP per capita, legislation, scale, supply-side and demand-side variables, as well as the share of sex work in the female labour force. Estimates are checked against national accounts adjustments for illegal production on the supply side and consumption expenditure on the demand side, using an average price for sexual services and related earnings; neither a profession nor an occupation, prostitution is an economic activity and sex workers belong to informal employment. Four main findings are the assessment for most likely Estimates, the asymmetry of prostitution regimes regarding the magnitude of sex work, the premium in earnings from prostitution and the inclusion of sex workers into informal employment.

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Edited by Jacques Charmes
Handbook