Despite their knowledge of climate science, a number of corporations and trade associations involved in the production or use of fossil fuels, acting in coordination with conservative think tanks, foundations, and public relations firms, have mounted a long-term effort to oppose action to mitigate carbon emissions. Viewed as a struggle to maintain political and cultural hegemony, this chapter shows the origins of this effort in the conservative and anti-environmental movements, aided by the development of public relations techniques applied to the management of environmental issues. This has resulted in a complex climate change countermovement, conducted by multiple organizations at different time scales and utilizing a wide range of tactics. This effort has successfully influenced cultural perceptions of climate change, leading to the continued obstruction of climate action.
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