This book sets an agenda for heritage planning. We explore new heritage frontiers in spatial planning and the interrelated planning and policy challenges. What will these challenges mean for integrated conservation practice, for spatial planners and agencies, for heritage professionals and organisations, and for scholars in these fields? In this introduction we provide a framework for reading, explaining our intentions for the book and our understandings of heritage planning. We set out how, over the last few decades, heritage planning in a European context has gradually developed different approaches and dependencies, creating an increasingly varied and layered field. The three key challenges in heritage planning that we have identified - identity, climate and development - are framed and further developed in this introduction, and used to position the invited contributions to this edited volume. These central themes also structure the final part of the book: an agenda for transformative future research and practice.