This introduction to the section on heritage and identity sets out both themes, their relations to each other, and the four core chapters comprising the section. Whilst the chapters share the general assumption that identity and heritage planning are strongly interrelated, each addresses rather different governance scales, management concepts and heritage perspectives dealing with the built environment. The key challenge seems to be how to deal with heritage and identity in landscape and urban heritage management, and heritage practices could still learn from much of the theory that has been developed in relation to both concepts over the last two decades. Referring to literature on appropriation and protest, on plurality and affective qualities, the section suggests that engagement in heritage has made little progress in general, although the chapters acknowledge significant efforts in that direction. Assuming a single, common European cultural heritage is problematic. Yet it is concluded that promotion of heritage in Europe requires its effective integration within planning and policies, and, maybe more critically, a strong stance in favour of communities rather than identities.