By analysing governance structures in the context of area-based case studies, this chapter explores how liberal and neoliberal tendencies are changing urban governance and subsequently heritage management across Europe. We map how roles and responsibilities within governance arrangements are - often forcefully and rapidly - changing, and heritage-led urban regeneration projects are being led by other-than-public actors. One of the results is that dealing with heritage - and in particular industrial heritage - in an urban context is becoming determined by the ‘usefulness of heritage’. Heritage is then a strategic tool, a means to an end; so, what end is that? We argue that all involved in urban heritage governance - politicians, practitioners, volunteers, and academics alike - need to ask each other more frequently about how the ways we care for and take care of heritage are affecting others.