Chapter 11: Satellite monitoring of geo-hazards affecting cultural heritage
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Tangible cultural heritage includes various categories of monuments and sites: from individual architecture to cultural landscapes, from archaeological complexes to historic centres. Many of these sites are impacted and weathered by several factors, with rapid or slow onsets; including natural hazards such as landslides, settlement, subsidence, earthquakes or extreme meteorological events. These could be worsened by climate change and/or human interaction. A comprehensive picture of cultural sites affected by geo-hazards is not yet available. Methodologies have been proposed (e.g. ICCROM, UNESCO, ICOMOS), subsets of data analysed (e.g. UNESCO World Heritage in danger, WMF World Monuments Watch, Europa Nostra most endangered heritage sites in Europe, Global Heritage Fund), with different methodologies and data availability. The Protection of European cultural heritage from geo-hazards (PROTHEGO) project provides an overview of remote sensing capabilities for monitoring these threats by focusing on properties on the UNESCO World Heritage List (WHL) in Europe.

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