Chapter 2: Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework
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The Exploration, Preparation, Implementation and Sustainment (EPIS) framework is a comprehensive multiphasic, multi-level implementation framework to guide implementation research and practice. EPIS consists of the implementation process, divided into four phases, and implementation factors, sorted into outer context, inner context, innovation and bridging factors. In addition, EPIS specifically indicates the importance of interconnections, interactions, linkages and relationships between the implementation factors and across the contextual levels. EPIS may be used to develop and evaluate research questions, hypotheses and models. This chapter describes the development and application of the framework and provides practical examples. Drawing from a systematic review of the EPIS framework and our collective expertise in using EPIS, the authors start with a brief history of the development of EPIS. They then describe how EPIS covers the core components of implementation with guidance and applied examples of integrating the EPIS framework, from study conception and execution, through to dissemination of findings to scientific and practice communities, and implementation and sustainment of innovations in practice.

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