Chapter 3: Leadership and organizational culture
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This chapter examines the nature of the relationship between leadership and organizational culture by initially delving into the mechanisms that leaders have at their disposal to formulate, reinforce, and change their organization's culture depending on its developmental stage. Besides the tools leaders can utilize to embed culture, the research literature on the interconnections between organizational culture, transformational leadership, and leader-member exchange is thoroughly reviewed. The examination of the literature on various leadership styles and how they are theoretically and empirically associated with organizational culture shows that the nature of the relationship between leadership and organizational culture empirically investigated focuses on a) the interactive effect of leadership and culture on organizational outcomes, b) leadership as an antecedent of organizational culture. Finally, a stream of empirical research examines the mediating effect of culture orientations in the leadership organizational outcomes link. In conclusion, the study of the interactive effect between leadership and culture demonstrates the complementary role of leadership in the organizational culture-outcomes link, as well as the moderator role of culture in the relation between leadership and other important organizational constructs, such as perceptions of justice. Leadership as an antecedent of culture and the mediating effect of culture in the leadership-organizational outcomes link explores culture

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