Chapter 5: Multilevel issues in organizations and culture: a review of theoretical and methodological innovations for the study of national and organizational culture
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Organizational cultures are embedded within larger cultural systems, including national culture. Here, we provide a short review and discussion of the intersection between national and organizational culture. One central focus of our review is on the multilevel structure of culture, which spans from very small units such as teams to global entities such as geographical regions. At the national level, Hofstede's (1980) seminal work continues to be a central influence on theorizing and research on national culture, therefore, we provide a brief review of his work and how it continues to shape work, such as the GLOBE project and Schwartz' value theory. At the same time, the notion of bounded cultural units tied to nations has been challenged and we discuss some of those challenges. We also briefly outline some of the measures and approaches to organizational culture measurement. We then discuss theoretical and methodological issues of culture at both organizational and national level and how they are interlinked. In the final section, we will reiterate a few core theoretical methodological advances and challenges for future research on the intersection between organizations and culture, especially focusing on complex systems and evolutionary theory approaches.

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