Chapter 6: Values-based methods for measuring organizational culture: logic, evidence and critique
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Since the 1980s, academic interest in the study of organisational culture, especially exploring the relationship between culture and organisational performance, has been increasing. Given this attention on the topic, scholars have engaged in developing more efficient, large-scale, standardisable, and unobtrusive instruments (compared to the traditional qualitative methods) for evaluating the beliefs, assumptions, and myths of an organisation. Starting from an overview of the organizational culture concept, this chapter aims to analyse the values-based quantitative methods developed in the literature for assessing organisational culture. We focused on two different types of approaches: typological and dimensional. The typological approach allows the categorisation of each organisation into predefined archetypes of dominant cultures, while the latter aims to explore the presence and relative strength of specific cultural traits in an organisation. For each approach, we selected one instrument among those commonly used by scholars and practitioners based on the following criteria: 1) applicability in different sectors; 2) capacity to evaluate the deeper aspects of the culture and several cultural traits; and 3) strong theoretical underpinning. Specifically, we reviewed the Competing Values Framework and the Organizational Culture Inventory® for the typological and dimensional approaches, respectively. Finally, we critically discuss the strengths and limitations of the quantitative values-based tools highlighting the relevant implications for academia and management practice.

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