Chapter 17: Deciphering bad organizational cultures
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As a number of business scandals have demonstrated in the past, organizations exist that have a "bad" culture in terms of accepting or even fostering corrupt and/or unethical behavior that may be toxic for the organization and its members. This chapter characterizes and defines the central concepts of organizational culture and its corrupt and unethical qualities that lead to toxic and generally bad cultures. Critical issues associated with analyzing "bad" cultures in terms of being corrupt or unethical are discussed before describing various data collection methods that can be used for deciphering corrupt or unethical cultures, including their strengths and challenges. These methods include existing questionnaires, the repertory grid, interviews, documentary analysis, observations, forensic diagnosis and ethnography. Given the multifaceted nature of culture, a multiple method approach is advised to uncover its corrupt or unethical quality at the organizational level. The chapter closes by pointing out the need for and value of combining multiple methods in a creative way for uncovering corrupt or unethical cultures.

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