Chapter 16: Machine learning for causal inference: estimating heterogeneous treatment effects
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This chapter presents some of the recent developments in the machine learning literature for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects. The focus is on the variation in treatment effects for population subgroups based on their observed characteristics. Three algorithms, the X-learner, the R-learner, and causal forests are presented and illustrated using an empirical case study of a policy impact evaluation of a national health insurance programme in Indonesia.

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