Chapter 19: Shipping and the environment: how environmental challenges impact on the shipping network
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Insofar as ships normally trigger consistent environmental costs within different port regions, shipping represents an environmental impacting business. The implementation of Emission Control Areas (ECAs), the adoption of new ship standards (e.g. LNG) and the introduction of international regulations (e.g. the Ballast Water Management Convention) are just a few examples of recent interventions implemented to deal with environmental needs. General environmental policies have proven to have both a direct and indirect effect on shipping network development. Against this backdrop, the chapter investigates recent technological, regulatory and strategic trends emerged within the shipping network with a view to accommodating regional and international environmental policies. Further to the analysis of those services that need to be provided within ports and on-board, the chapter also tackles some recent developments (i.e. slow steaming and Arctic shipping) that are likely to shape the shipping market organisation.

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