Chapter 1: Introduction
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The chapter provides a comprehensive review of selected methods and tools available for conducting environmental assessments. It then provides a critical review of the use and applications of scenarios and models for undertaking environmental assessments, especially pertaining to biodiversity and ecosystem services assessments. The chapter highlights the critical role that scenarios and models can play in alerting scientists and policy makers to environmental events and risks and taking informed decisions and proactive steps to address these risks such as climate change, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

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