Chapter 11: The price that is paid: violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and poverty
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Discrimination and violence against diverse sexual orientations, gender identities and expressions, or sex characteristics (SOGIESC) exists in different forms across most cultures. Deeply entrenched stigma and prejudice reinforced by discriminatory laws, leads to marginalization, economic and social exclusion, and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, who are effectively left behind. This chapter takes a point of departure in the international human rights law and public policy framework that is available to analyse and systematize the available evidence related to forms and dynamics of exclusion, and the correlative proposals for LGBT inclusion in the health, education, employment/economic opportunity, and housing/adequate standards of living sectors. It also presents key priority areas for social inclusion based on SOGI, and connectivity with the Sustainable Development Goals and the 2013 Development Agenda.

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