Chapter 11: New concepts in complexity theory arising from studies in the field of architecture: an overview of the four books of the nature of order with emphasis on the scientific problems which are raised
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Complexity theories of cities (CTC) is a domain of research that applies to cities the various theories of complexity that originated in the sciences. In this chapter Alexander explores the ways that his theory of architecture as developed in his four volumes on The Nature of Order can be applied to, and inform, the sciences in general, the science of complexity and of CTC. In particular, he shows that properties such as value, aesthetics, beauty, wholeness that throughout most of the 20th century were treated as subjective and thus ‘non-scientific’, should form the theoretical core not only of architecture but of the current sciences of complexity – in general and in connection with cities, urban planning and design.

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