Chapter 24: The road to Catalan independence: sovereignty, self-determination and the struggle for democracy, 2006–19
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In 2010, Catalan nationalism as it had been conceived in the mid-nineteenth century began to die. The political battle between Spain and Catalonia opened up a new period. Catalan nationalism became separatist and former nationalist regional authorities joined Catalan people to reclaim a separate state for Catalonia via a self-determination referendum. The opposition of the Spanish political central power to allow Catalonia to organize this referendum pushed the Catalan authorities to celebrate it without authorization. The failed proclamation of the Catalan Republic on October 27, 2017 had devastating effects for the regional government and pro-independence politicians. The state suspended the Catalan autonomy. Civic leaders and politicians were imprisoned and the Catalan president, Mr. Carles Puigdemont, fled to exile in Belgium. In Spain, the use of violence to solve political problems is not a ‘black legend’ fabricated spuriously by anti-Spanish Europeans. Indeed, it has been an enduring constant. However, the impact of the Catalan crisis had important consequences for the Spanish politics: the Conservative Party – PP – lost the first 2019 general election and the Socialist Party —PSOE – won it amidst an unstable atmosphere. The Spanish clash continues.

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