Chapter 4: The welfare dimension: understanding trans(national) solidarity in Europe
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Civil society organisations continue to operate as vehicles of solidarity and do so with a diverse range of groups. Chapter 4 focuses on how civil society organisations engage in meeting the needs of vulnerable groups, such as the unemployed, disabled people and migrants/refugees, through the delivery of services and policy advocacy that relate to welfare provision. Two central research questions are answered: (i) how is solidarity operationalised across Europe and (ii) at what scales of action do solidarity organisations engage across Europe? To answer these questions the chapter analyses data collected through a survey conducted with 245 civil society organisations across Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Switzerland and the UK. Although the findings reveal some evidence of transnational solidarity, the organisational expression of solidarity is most often located at the national level, where most beneficiaries and political interlocutors are located.