Chapter 17: Urban dysfunctionalities before the Anthropocene
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This chapter provides an overview of key challenges facing cities at this time, pointing to inequities that have been systematically spatialized in our urban areas. While it is not possible to review every issue within a short chapter, it focuses primarily on uneven employment distribution and the resulting inequitable commuting patterns, income segregation patterns, environmental inequities, global patterns of aging and the resulting labour migration patterns, and some of the key climate change issues related to these patterns. The importance of a regional approach in facing the existing and forthcoming urban challenges is pointed out. The under-valuation of labour takes on global and local geographic manifestations. Climate change is the end result of a process: the systemic inequities built into our economy and what appears to be the resulting practice of everyday life. The chapter will end with a few examples of effective policies for creating more liveable metropolitan areas.

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