Proceeding from the view that the creation and defence of protected areas have normalized violence as a feature of conservation this chapter proposes a framework that could be used to promote non-violent conservation, using Africa as an example. A non-violent conservation should be founded on the broader philosophies of non-violence and should be anchored on respect for human rights and dignity. The chapter argues that non-violent conservation is more about creating conditions that prevent the normalization of violent practices than stopping violence often associated with poaching. The chapter concludes that caring for nonhumans without compromising the rights and wellbeing of humans requires fundamental changes to the idea of conservation, the spaces in which conservation takes place, and the practices of governments and financiers of the conservation enterprise.
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