Chapter 3: Against environmentalism for the common good: a theoretical model
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This chapter theorizes anti-environmentalism by exploring a plurality of anti-environmental counter-movements situated across the political spectrum. In particular, I trace the ways in which such counter-movements craft moral appeals to the common good, drawing on pragmatic sociology as first conceptualized by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006[1991]). Competing common goods can be viewed as powerful moral frames, but they also mobilize nonhuman actors and qualified objects (e.g. built environments and hydrocarbons) so are better construed as "moral assemblages" that draw together heterogeneous agencies. I suggest that five such moral assemblages of anti-environmentalism account for internationally prominent and theoretically significant counter-movements. The chapter shows how these counter-movements draw upon a plurality of contradictory moral assemblages of the common good to try and revise, defeat or revolutionize environmentalism. To this end I draw upon an array of case studies, mainly from Canada, but also from other countries to show broader, cross-contextual applicability. The chapter concludes by retracing inter-assemblage confluences between anti-environmentalisms and charting a way in which different progressive anti-environmentalisms can build bridges.

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